1. Conservation biology _____ B. strives to create as many new species as possible. C. is not practiced in the United States. D. is committed to the protection and restoration of the world`s biodiversity. There are many possible effects of climate change on the ecology of conservation landscapes. Projected ecological impacts and biodiversity impacts due to climate change include significant restructuring of coastal and estuary systems, changes in species distribution (often hampered by habitat fragmentation or geographical isolation), and significant changes in ecosystem processes, including changes in fire and water cycles.
In addition, temperature-induced changes in plant phenology can disrupt the relationship between the plant and the pollinator. In addition, temperature changes are expected to trigger trophic cascades, pandemics of parasites and pathogens, and general population declines, especially in susceptible species. Most of these impacts will be expressed at broader landscape levels, making it difficult for conservation planners managed at the reserve level. Historically, the idea of conservation has been associated with wilderness and nature reserves, especially like North American national parks, that is, vast uninhabited areas. Thus, Yellowstone National Park, the world`s first national park, was founded in 1872 and created as part of the U.S. National Park System “to preserve the landscape and natural and historical objects and wildlife here and to enjoy them in a way and in ways that do not leave them affected for the enjoyment of future generations” (the National Park Organic Act of 1916). In these areas, despite principle 5 of Table 9.1, the humanities have remained marginal and conservation management continues to focus on biodiversity and system functions rather than on the interactions between the human population and its environment. The term conservation was widely used in the late 19th century and referred to the management, mainly for economic reasons, of natural resources such as wood, fish, game, topsoil, pastures and minerals.
In addition, it referred to the conservation of forests (forestry), wildlife (wildlife reserve), parks, wilderness and watersheds. During this time, the first nature conservation laws were passed and the first nature conservation societies were founded. The Sea Birds Preservation Act of 1869 was passed in Britain as the world`s first conservation law following intensive lobbying by the Seabird Protection Association and respected ornithologist Alfred Newton.  Newton was also instrumental in passing the first wildlife laws of 1872, which protected animals during their breeding season to prevent population extinction.  Based on this principle, conservation biologists can pursue an ethic based on community resources in all cultures as a solution to community resource conflicts.  For example, the Tlingit peoples of Alaska and the Haida in the Pacific Northwest had resource limits, rules, and clan restrictions regarding the sockeye salmon fishery. These rules were led by clan elders who knew all their lives the details of each river and stream they managed.   There are many examples in history in which cultures have followed rules, rituals and organized practices regarding community-based management of natural resources.   Today, there are many threats to biodiversity.
An acronym that can be used to express the main threats of today`s H.I.P.P.O stands for Habitat Loss, Invasive Species, Pollution, Human Population and Overexploitation.  The main threats to biodiversity are habitat destruction (such as deforestation, agricultural expansion, urban development) and overexploitation (e.g., wildlife trade).       Habitat fragmentation is also a challenge, as the global network of protected areas covers only 11.5% of the Earth`s surface.  A major consequence of fragmentation and the absence of contiguous protected areas is the reduction of animal migration globally. The concept of conservation biology and its conception as a new field arose from the convening of the “First International Conference on Research in Conservation Biology”, which was held in 1978 at the University of California, San Diego at La Jolla, California, under the direction of American biologists Bruce A. Wilcox and Michael E. Soulé with a group of academic researchers and environmentalists and Leading zoological figures, including Kurt Benirschke, Sir Otto Frankel, Thomas Lovejoy and Jared Diamond. The meeting was motivated by concerns about deforestation and tropical deforestation, species extinction and the erosion of genetic diversity within species.  The conference and the resulting procedures aimed to bridge a gap between the theory of ecology and evolutionary genetics on the one hand and conservation policy and practice on the other. Conservation biologists research and inform about trends and processes of biodiversity loss, species extinction and the negative effects they have on our ability to maintain the well-being of human society. Conservation biologists work in practice and in the office, in governments, universities, non-profit organizations and industry. The subjects of his research are varied, as it is an interdisciplinary network with professional alliances in the life and social sciences. Those who commit to the cause and the profession are engaged in a comprehensive response to the current biodiversity crisis based on morality, ethics and scientific reason. Organizations and citizens respond to the biodiversity crisis through conservation action plans that conduct research, monitoring and education programs that address local concerns globally.     There is a growing recognition that nature conservation is not only about what is achieved, but also about how it is achieved.  A “conservation acrostichum” was created to emphasize the point where C = co-product, O = open, N = agile, S = solution-oriented, E = empowering, R = relational, V = value-based, A = actionable, T = transdisciplinary, I = inclusive, O = optimistic, and N = nourishing  In the United States, the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 gave the president the power to reserve the country`s forest reserves for the public.