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November 2022

Situating Legal Consciousness

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This chapter analyzes the legal consciousness of ordinary citizens by examining how legal experiences and attitudes toward offensive public speech vary by race, gender, and class. Legal awareness research examines the role of law and its role in building understandings, influencing actions, and shaping various aspects of social life. Insulting public speech is a compelling context for exploring legal awareness. Attitudes and experiences with offensive public speech are complex. The unstructured portions of the interviews show that respondents proposed four “paradigms” to resist the legal regulation of offensive public speech. The four paradigms are the paradigm of freedom of expression, the paradigm of autonomy, the impracticable paradigm and distrust of authority. Examining the links between experiences of street harassment and their attitudes towards its legal regulation can shed light on the roots and consequences of the “legal conscience” of different social groups. This product contributes to the following United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). DOI-Link for Situating Legal Consciousness: Experiences and Attitudes of Ordinary Citizens about Law and Street Harassment.

UR – www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85082287149&partnerID=8YFLogxK.

Simple Definition of Plant Breeding

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Folic acid is an important vitamin for human nutrition, obtained primarily from plant sources. However, important vegetables usually have a lower concentration of this vitamin. Therefore, tomatoes, an important vegetable, were developed to improve folate content by overexpressing mammalian synthetic cyclohydrolase I GTP (GTPCHI) and the aminodeoxychorismate synthase gene (ADCS) of Arabidopsis, thereby increasing folate content by 25-fold in tomato fruits (de la Garza et al, 2004; de la Garza et al, 2007). Later, rice seeds with high folate levels were biofortified by developing Arabidopsis, GTPCHI and ADCS genes with their seed-specific overexpression (Storozhenko et al., 2007). The socio-economic barrier has not yet approved the commercial release of folic acid-enriched CMGs for commercial cultivation (Blancquaert et al., 2014). Plants such as soybeans have also been experimented with a technique to increase the active α-tocopherol readily available in seeds due to the high edibility worldwide. Soybean was transformed by overexpressing the gamma-tocopherol methyltransferase gene isolated from Perilla frutescens with a 10.4-fold increase in α-tocopherol (Tavva et al., 2007). Previously, a similar Arabidopsis gene had also been developed in lettuce to increase tocopherol levels (Cho et al., 2005). However, results from field trials with CMGs with enhanced vitamin E supplements were not sufficiently consistent with non-GMCs (Harrigan and Harrison, 2012).

GM crops with improved vitamin A content in cereal crops, especially wheat, rice and maize, which are staple foods in several countries in Africa and South Asia, can significantly reduce mortality due to vitamin A deficiency. The introduction of Golden Rice in 2000 marked the new era of GMCs with better incorporation of nutrients. Since rice is the staple food worldwide, the incorporation of whole genes from the beta-carotene synthesis pathway into the rice endosperm was intended to solve the main problem of vitamin A deficiency in several underdeveloped and developing countries (Ye et al., 2000). The genes phytoene synthase (Psy) and lycopene beta-cyclase were fused into the rice genome by Narcissus pseudonarcissus with phytoene desaturase from Erwinia uredovora (Beyer et al., 2002). However, the introduction of Golden Rice, like all other GMCs, is blocked from being placed on the commercial market unless researchers have demonstrated its improved benefits for existing varieties and the safety of human consumption. However, before Golden Rice was marketed, another Golden Rice 2 variety from Paine et al. (2005). This strain could synthesize 23 times more beta-carotene by incorporating phytoene synthase from corn in addition to E.

Uredovora carotene desaturase gene from Golden Rice. Golden Rice has been approved by Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States (Lynas 2018). In addition, the Philippines also approved the use of GR2E Golden Rice for Food or Processing (www.irri.org) in 2019 (IRRI, 2019). Rice was also produced with iron biofortification. Goto et al. (1999) transformed the rice genome into improved iron (Fe) content in rice seeds. The improved transgenic rice was produced by fusing a soybean-derived ferritin gene soyferH1 with the rice endosperm-specific glutelin promoter to enhance Fe accumulation in rice seeds. The expression of the ferritin gene in rice seeds increased Fe accumulation as well as Zn concentration. Transgenic rice retained its nutritional properties even after grain polishing (Vasconcelos et al., 2003).

However, the global market launch of fortified rice is still in the process of placing on the global market due to the continued partial acceptance of golden rice worldwide (De-Xian Kok et al., 2018). Successful commercial plant breeding operations were established from the end of the 19th century. [clarification needed] Garton`s Agricultural Plant Breeders in England was founded in the 1890s by John Garton, who was one of the first to commercialize new varieties of agricultural crops produced by cross-pollination. [9] The company`s first introduction was Abundance Oat, one of the first agricultural cereals to be selected from controlled crossing and marketed in 1892. [10] [11] With the slow pace of transgenes for insect and herbicide resistance, GMCs to improve nutritional quality can not only improve farmers` incomes, but also provide a sustainable food source without the need for additional supplements. However, unlike other GMCs, plants with improved nutrient content are adopted a little more slowly as they are produced for exclusive consumption. However, with the introduction of GM maize for a higher lysine content, it is hoped that other crops will soon enter commercial markets. In plant breeding, QTL analysis can be coupled to MAS, allowing breeders to better select not only offspring, but also potential parents carrying desirable genes for traits of interest. However, the marker density of many cards created in this way is not very high. In addition, since only two parents are involved in crossbreeding, it is possible that they still share many genetic alleles. This may be beneficial when creating the original map, as fewer markers (i.e. less confusion in mapping) would be needed to cover the genome, albeit at a lower resolution (i.e.

approximate mapping30). However, this can decrease the apparent length of the map and reduce the accuracy of mapping, especially minor QTLs, making it difficult to determine their exact genetic nature and increasing the possibility that coupling will introduce unwanted alleles into the harvest when QTLs are introduced. For this reason, it is considered useful to perform fine mapping once the approximate positions of QTL have been found. A graphical overview of the flow from QTL analysis to MAS is shown in Figure 2. Plant breeding has been practiced since man began growing crops. Over the past 100 years, the intensity of plant breeding has increased and is now recognized as a complex integration of science (or science) and practicality. Recently, the growing need to feed the world`s population, as well as the ever-increasing demand for a balanced and healthy diet, has led to continued pressure on the production of new and improved plant varieties. The strategies used to produce them are increasingly based on our knowledge of relevant science, especially genetics, but require a multidisciplinary understanding that optimizes the chosen approaches. Im frühen 20.

In the nineteenth century, plant breeders realized that Mendel`s findings about the non-random nature of heredity could be applied to seedling populations produced by deliberate pollination to predict the abundance of different species. Wheat hybrids were bred to increase Italy`s agricultural production during the so-called “grain battle” (1925-1940). Heterosis was explained by George Harrison Shull. It describes the tendency of the offspring of a particular cross to surpass both parents. The demonstration of the usefulness of heterosis for plant breeding has led to the development of inbred lines that have a heterotic yield advantage when crossed. Corn was the first variety in which heterosis was widely used to produce hybrids. The debate over GM foods in the 1990s reached its peak in 1999 in terms of media coverage and risk perception[24] and continues to this day – for example: “Germany threw its weight behind a growing European mutiny on GM crops by banning the cultivation of a widespread pest-resistant maize variety. [25] The debate focuses on the environmental impact of GM crops, the safety of GM foods and approaches to safety assessment such as substantial equivalence.

Side Exit Exhaust Legal Qld

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1. The exhaust outlet of the exhaust system fitted to a motor vehicle with a maximum permissible weight exceeding 4.5 tonnes (other than a bus) shall extend: (2) The outlet shall discharge the main exhaust gas stream into the air: (a) if the vehicle is equipped with an exhaust system with a vertical exhaust pipe or is to be fitted in accordance with a law of that jurisdiction: (3) An exposed portion of a vertical exhaust system mounted or armoured on a motor vehicle (other than a bus) with a maximum permissible weight exceeding 4.5 tonnes in order to prevent injury. (ii) the vehicle is not equipped with a vertical exhaust system; and (a) if the vehicle is equipped with an exhaust system with a vertical exhaust pipe which does not direct the main exhaust gas flow upwards, — direct the flow rearward at an angle of 0° to 45° to the longitudinal centre line of the vehicle, and. (b) at least 40 mm beyond the outermost joint of the floor that is not continuously welded or permanently sealed; and. So what are you waiting for? It`s free and only takes a while, so sign up for an account today!. (d) not further than the edge of the vehicle at its widest point. (i) the body of the vehicle is permanently closed; and (a) be as close as practicable to the rear of the vehicle; and when you`re here, either you own a V8 or you`re interested in them, whether it`s Ford or Holden, Chev or Cleveland, who can blame you? You can join thousands of other V8 enthusiasts from all over Australia, New Zealand and the rest of the world to discuss all topics related to auto modifications, maintenance and racing! It`s easy to connect and only takes about 30 seconds! Currently, 1 user is browsing this thread. (0 members and 1 guests). (b) when a rain cap is fitted to the outlet pipe, be positioned so that the hinge of the plug is at an angle of 90° (plus or minus 10°) to the longitudinal centre line of the vehicle when viewed from above. (i) horizontally or at an angle not exceeding 45° downwards; and (ii) at least 150 mm above the cab of the vehicle; and (iii) at the rear or right of the vehicle; and.

Short Form Translation

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In the corporate world, every company follows a certain set of rules. Some of them like to be part of the translation process. They provide their authors with a style guide so that each document is published in the right format. They also offer reference manuals for translator abbreviations. If the translator is confused, they can refer to the company`s old publications to find out how abbreviations are translated. Any reader can understand what the UN is referring to, but when it comes to certain abbreviations, it will be difficult for translators and readers to understand the meaning behind them. Sometimes, even after understanding what an abbreviation means, translators have no idea how to translate it into the target language. You can spell the abbreviation in the native language of the readers, but that would be confusing to the audience. So what should a person do when faced with shortcuts? They should start by forgetting what they know about abbreviations. Each document must be treated differently when it comes to translations. It is true that translating abbreviations can be a very complex process, but it is not impossible to manage. With the right guidelines and help, translators can overcome this problem.

Below are IRB-approved translations of the “abbreviated” consent document. You will also find below the English version of the short form. Translation certificates are available for these documents. If the texts to be translated are legal or medical, they have industry-specific abbreviations. These abbreviations will already be translated into different languages or understandable in their original form. From there, you`ll need to determine whether you need to find their translated version or add it as is. An acronym translation must follow the same rule. The medical and legal context will help you determine if you need translations of the acronym or add them as is. For more information about abbreviated consent documents and how to obtain consent, see Obtaining and documenting consent from non-English speakers. If you require “abbreviated” consent in a language other than the one specified herein, you must have the English version of the “abbreviated” consent (below) translated into the language you need for the participant. You must submit the translated short form, along with a translation certificate, to the HMM IRB for approval.

Note: The instructions attached to the following versions of the Common Rule short forms are out of date: Burmese, French, Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, and Polish. Please use the updated instructions here. An abbreviation is the short form of a phrase or word. An acronym is a type of abbreviation that can be pronounced. Acronyms are also abbreviations based solely on the initials of a word. Abbreviations are common in all industries. They are also used by the state in official documents. Some slang words are also abbreviations that end up becoming part of people`s everyday vernacular. The abbreviations of international organizations are known throughout the world. But those used for national associations are known only to the natives of the country.

Translators face many problems on a daily basis. There are no rules to guide them when it comes to specific issues. In such a situation, a company or translator must take into account the context and decide for themselves. One of the questions translators often have to ask themselves is how to translate abbreviations accurately. However, there is no general guideline for the translation of abbreviations. Rules may vary from organization to organization. The difference between source and target languages is another factor that can affect a translator`s judgment. If the source language is closer to the target language, it is easier for the translator to find the abbreviation. Abbreviated consents are available as Microsoft Word documents.

The language of the template is locked, except for mandatory fields specific to your study and the person being registrant. Where can I find the policy for using the abbreviated consent document with topics other than English? For more information on using the Abbreviated Consent Document with non-English speaking subjects, see the User Interface Investigator`s Guide. The purpose of translation is to give the reader a chance to understand the source content. It connects communities and helps them overcome the language barrier. Although people can turn to Google for translation of simple words and phrases, only experienced human translators can help them with official documents. If we do not translate abbreviations, it will be impossible for people to understand what a single word or letter means in a document. By leaving an abbreviation as is, a translator creates confusion in the minds of readers. What is a short form? A short form is a consent document written in a language understandable by a non-English speaking person [or their authorized legal representative (LAR)]. It summarizes the elements of informed consent set out in federal regulations, but does not include specific information about the study. Therefore, it is used in conjunction with an oral presentation of the IRB-approved English version of the informed consent document (ICD) in a language understandable to the potential subject.

Where can I find the short form and instructions? Click here to access the English version of the short form and instructions for using the short form. Access the Abbreviated Consent and Process training tool in the user interface for information on the use of the document and the simplified consent process. People have created languages to communicate with each other. But there are many aspects of languages that make them complex. Therefore, they need to be simplified so that they can be easily understood by people. We have different slang words to make the language easier to use. Sometimes we make changes in languages just to shorten them. For example, “How are you?” “How are you?” But not all short forms of words and names are informal. There are abbreviations that are also used by public servants. For example, it is not wrong to call the United Nations “UN”. You will see that the United Nations is called the UN in many official documents. Are there resources to help you translate the short form into other languages? Yes.

The OHS Officer has permission to share the names of these translators in the Iowa City/Coralville area so that investigators can contact them to discuss translation services. Negotiation/contracting for these services is the responsibility of the investigator. In the English translation, almost every letter of an acronym is capitalized. There are some exceptions to this rule, such as “radar”. But if a translator has to deal with other acronyms, he must capitalize each letter. By translating abbreviations, we can help people learn more about organizations in other countries. This can help them gain knowledge that would otherwise have been out of their reach. The responsibility for sharing useful information with the public rests on the shoulders of language experts. Abbreviations and Latin words are everywhere, from the medical field to the legal system. They are translators who help students understand these complex terms. When it comes to the short form of a job title, it is not easy to find the solution.

Some job titles have a translated form into the audience`s native language, others do not. This also applies to the names of countries and political organizations. It`s best to do your own research and understand the process for each term. When should I use a short form? A reviewer should use the short form if they unexpectedly encounter a potential research participant who does not speak English but has not translated the IRB-approved informed consent document (IRB) into a language they can understand. It is important that you use the correct version of the short form. All study teams wishing to use a short form should follow the updated instructions here. Note: The abbreviated templates have been updated to comply with the revised Common Rule. If your study was approved before 21.01.2019 and you wish to use a short form, please select the short form from the table of common rules below. If your study was approved after 21.01.2019, please select the short form in the “Revised Common Rule” table below. Latin abbreviations are used in almost all fields of study. They are also very common among English speakers.

As for Latin abbreviations, translators do not need to translate them. You can write the Latin abbreviations as they are. The public will have no trouble understanding these common abbreviations as they are used by writers around the world. Where can I get a translated version of the short form? The Office of Human Subjects (HSO) has had the short form translated into several languages and they are available here. The Principal Investigator is responsible for ensuring that the English version of the IRB-approved short form is translated into other languages, as required. If it`s a company or organization that isn`t known worldwide, you can translate the full name and then write the acronym in parentheses. You can also add the name of the original language in which the acronym is written. Some experts prefer to give an explanation of the acronym in English for the benefit of English speakers.

Shall Legal English

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Shall is an ambiguous and confusing word. Most of its use in legal documents is inappropriate and inaccurate. It is also not widely used in contemporary language. In many common law countries, drafters adopt the “should less” style. Here are some examples of Shallless drawings from the United States of America, Australia, Great Britain and South Africa. But often, this scale did not work because the intended meaning became distorted and confused. For example, if the substitution rule is applied in the sentence: “The employee will be reimbursed for all expenses”, you will receive: “The employee has an obligation to be reimbursed for all expenses”. This caused confusion for the simple reason that the intention seemed to be to establish a claim for the employee and not to impose an obligation on the employee. To properly frame the intent, the sentence could have read simply as follows: “The employee is entitled to reimbursement of expenses.” Fowler, in his book The King`s English on the rules for using debit vs.

will, wrote the comment “idiomatic use, while it comes naturally to the inhabitants of southern England. is so complicated that those who are not born in this way can hardly acquire it.” The Pocket Fowler`s Modern English Usage, OUP, 2002, says of the rule for the use of should and will: “It is unlikely that this rule ever had a consistent basis of authority in actual usage, and many examples of printed [British] English ignore it.” Unlike the European Union, which continues to use the term “shall” in various senses in its legislation[7], the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia now avoid using the term “shall” when drafting new laws. [8] The concept of obligation is constantly expressed by the verb “shall” and the archaic formulation has been simplified (“This law expires” – >This law expires”; “The Authority shall consist of 10 members” – > “The Authority shall consist of 10 members”). Lawmakers from Anglo-Saxon countries explained this change in practice by highlighting the movement of plain English and the need to draft laws in a language accessible and understandable by all citizens. In the above sentences, must be replaced by will without changing the intended meaning, although the form with will can also be interpreted as a simple statement about the expected future. The use of must, in addition to coloring the meaning, is often associated with formality and/or seriousness. For some specific cases of its formal use, see sections § Legal use and § Technical specifications. Despite the ambiguity of the word, the word is destined to continue to be used in the majority of agreements, contracts and legal forms. Instead, these documents should be drafted or revised in such a way that they must, can, will be or should. Unfortunately, the complete elimination of existing documents and templates without expert legal advice requires a review of countless documents and accurate analysis each time the word appears in a document to find the correct meaning and replace it with the appropriate word. Alternatively, a global proofreading language can be inserted into existing documents to require that all uses of the word be interpreted as mandatory and not permissive.

In this usage, would be sometimes (though rarely) replaced by should if the subject is in the first person (due to the same prescriptive rule that calls for should rather than wanting as a normal future marker for that person). This should be found in standard phrases such as “I should think” and “I should expect”. However, its use in more general cases is old-fashioned or very formal and can lead to ambiguity with the more common use of should sign. This is illustrated by the following sentences: 5. Entitled to “all expenses shall be reimbursed to the secretary”. (“The production facility is considered part of the assets of the joint venture when it is constructed.”) The most common specific use of shall in everyday English is in questions that serve as offers or suggestions: “Shall I…?” or “Shall we…?” These are discussed under § Questions below. • The U.S. federal government`s style subcommittee decided to drop the word “shall” Outside the Department of Defense, other parts of the U.S. government discourage the use of the word “shall” for three reasons: it lacks a single clear meaning, it provokes litigation, and it is almost absent in everyday language. The legal reference Words and Phrases devotes 76 pages to summarizing hundreds of lawsuits revolving around the meaning of the word must. When it is a legal or technical requirement, words and phrases should be preferred, while recommendations should be reserved.

[1] Shall is one of the most distorted and contentious words in the language of the law. More than 100 pages of the Words & Phrases encyclopedia are devoted to a summary of more than 1,300 common law jurisdictions. This abuse also extends to laws and private legal documents. Consider this sentence: “The rental period begins with the beginning of the last of the … Now replace shall with one of the other verbs mentioned above. The word “shall” is used indiscriminately in the editorial staff of 6 Fed. R. Evid. 1 Note by the Advisory Committee; Fed.

R. Civ. P. Advisory Committee Note (“The revised rules minimize the use of inherently ambiguous words. For example, depending on the context, the word “shall” may mean “shall”, “may” or something else. The risk of confusion is exacerbated by the fact that “shall” is no longer commonly used in spoken or clearly written English. The revised rules replace “shall” with “shall”, “may” or “should”, depending on the context and the interpretation set out in each rule is correct. »). A more popular illustration of the use of “must” with the second person to express determination can be found in the oft-quoted words that the fairy godmother traditionally says to Cinderella in the British versions of the well-known fairy tale: “You`ll go to the ball, Cinderella!” Authors should not use the terms “shall” and “shall” together in the same law or regulation. This could raise the question of whether different meanings are intended. For specifications and standards published by the U.S.

Department of Defense (DoD), the requirements with “shall” are the mandatory requirements. (“Shall” may not be used to express mandatory provisions. Use the phrase “should.”) “Will” declares the intention or the simple future, and “should” and “may” express non-binding provisions. [22] [23] [24] The above meaning of the term “will” is generally limited to direct matters with a first-person theme. In the case of a reported question (even if it is not reported in the past tense), shall may be replaced by should or another modal verb, such as: “He asks if he should open a window”; “He asked if they could dance.” Contrary to our belief, “should” has a fixed meaning, even remotely. Because of its contradictory use in contexts other than the exercise of an obligation, shall has been interpreted by the various courts to mean “shall”, “should”, “will”, “may” or “is”. The amendment of the law from “shall” to “may” has no substantial effect. (Moore v. Illinois Central Railroad Company) Are you interested in getting a monthly booster to vaccinate yourself against the most common legal errors in English? Once a month, you will receive a short email with concise advice on how to avoid specific errors in vocabulary, grammar or style that Jérôme`s leading lawyer-linguists encounter on a daily basis when reviewing and perfecting many legal texts that pass through their hands.

3. “No one may enter the building without first signing the file.” If a negative word such as not or not before shall (as in the example in square brackets), the word must often mean may. What is denied is permission, not a requirement. Both should and are used to mark a circumstance as occurring in the future; This construction is often called the future of English.

Serie Boston Legal Donde Ver

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Boston Legal is one of the most complicated series to find on the Internet and on different video-on-demand platforms such as Netflix, HBO, Prime Video or Hulu. The reason is simple, no platform has the rights, so we can`t see it legally. But everything is complicated due to the age of the series and the fact that it has been published by several channels (at least here in Spain). The illegal way of looking at things is also complicated, as is the case with CSI. Hellow to all the series sayings, thank you very much for everything, thank you for being there every day, I intervene to see the news for a short time. Do you know anything about this alternate ending you hear so much? Do you know anything about this spin-off that you hear so much? Do you know anything about this spin-off you hear there? I look forward to your response and greetings. But before we explain how you can see, it`s interesting to talk about the series itself. In the 90s, trial series became fashionable, with Allie McBeal as the revolutionary role. For this reason, series of this type followed in the 2000s. From one of them, The Lawyer, will emerge this new series, which will follow the character of Alan Shore (James Spader) as he arrives in a new law firm.

Series by the famous David E. Kelley (creator of successful series such as “Ally McBeal” or “Picket Fences”), which tells the private and professional life of a group of renowned lawyers from the law firm Crane Poole & Schmidt. The personal and professional lives of Boston`s most experienced litigators form the basis of this prime-time comedy-drama, which has been nominated for multiple Emmy Awards since its premiere in 2004. When attorney Brad Chase (Mark Valley) was hired in Washington, D.C. Transferred to Boston to keep an eye on Poole & Schmidt partner Denny Crane (William Shatner), he had no idea what he was getting into. While Chase does his best to keep an eye on Crane, Alan Shore (James Spader) uses ethically questionable methods to win business that no one else will touch. As a spin-off of the Emmy-winning legal drama The Practice, Boston Legal has also featured respected actors such as Candice Bergen, René Auberjonois, and John Larroquette. There, Denny Crane (William Shatner) will be the Big Boss, who already suffers from early-onset Alzheimer`s disease. The two will be the protagonist couple of this company where everyone wants to get a greater benefit for their team. We welcome Shirley Schmidt (Candice Bergen), who will try to calm her two crazy companions.

The plot and drama behind the series managed to triumph for five seasons and win several Emmy Awards. As with other series, the only way to do this legally is to buy DVDs. It sounds so old, it`s actually something that is still being done today and shows us that times have changed, but there are things that have remained the same. Therefore, there is always the possibility to go to a store (or website) and buy the records to enjoy this interesting series from the 2000s. After all, we can`t enjoy it on Netflix, HBO, Prime Video or Hulu and we can only do that by buying Boston Legal DVDs. Hellow content creators, my sincerest congratulations for keeping me informed, I am a reader now more than ever. Where and how can I watch Boston Legal series online in Spanish? Does Amazon Prime Video have this series in its catalog? Where can I watch Boston Legal series for free online (in the stream)? Thank you and greetings. Although this title is not available in your country, you can still play it. With a good VPN, you can unblock country-specific restrictions. All you have to do is hire a good VPN provider, install the software once, and then change your virtual location to a country where the title is© available. Every VPN provider we present to you on our website is perfect for this purpose.

I sincerely hoped that you would give more details on why it is so difficult for platforms to acquire the rights. Recently, Amazon achieved this with Stargate, another of the impossible. First of all, if you want to know more about Boston Legal, you should see the entry of it. Starring: James SpaderJohn LarroquetteChristian Clemenson The personal and professional lives of . More.

Seneca College Legal Assistant

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As a graduate of this program, you can obtain your paralegal license and operate your own paralegal practice. You can also explore career opportunities in the following areas: The Law Society is asking us to remind all students in the Paralegal Certificate Program that remote program delivery was a temporary response to the COVID-19 situation and that in-person instruction has resumed. Whether you`re changing careers or putting your skills to good use, Seneca College`s Part-Time Paralegal Certificate Program can help you succeed in this dynamic field where the scope of practice is likely to expand and employment growth is expected to be strong. Yasmeen Syed Academic Program Manager Yasmeen.Syed@senecacollege.ca 416-764-0965 This course introduces students to the Canadian legal system. Students will explore the nature of law and justice in Canada, the structure of Canada`s legal and judicial systems, the role of government in legislation, and important laws affecting civil liberties in Canada. In addition, after distinguishing between categories and important areas of law, the basics of tort law and immigration law are also targeted. If you meet all the necessary academic requirements, you can do an unpaid internship, which allows you to gain practical experience within a formal legal framework. You may have a shared responsibility to get an internship. The internship can take place after the third semester of study on campus and extends the duration of the program by one month.

Technical terminology and documentation form the basis on which your keyboard skills are developed. In addition, you will develop an understanding of the main areas of legal office administration with a focus on legal practices and procedures, including: family law and criminal law, as well as litigation, corporate, real estate and small claims law practices. This course provides an introduction to the substantive law and procedure related to Criminal Code of Canada offences, with a focus on summary conviction offences. Students examine the limited role of the paralegal in criminal proceedings. Students will also learn the procedures required to apply for a pardon. This course provides students with an introduction to legal research and the basic techniques of good legal writing. Students develop the skills to analyze simple legal problems and explore fundamental legal issues. Students learn to find and update the main sources of law, both paper-based and computer-assisted.

Students learn to read, interpret and apply laws, regulations and cases. The focus is on Ontario and federal law. In three consecutive semesters, you will gain the skills and knowledge usually offered in a four-semester program. This format allows you to complete the program and enter the workforce at a non-traditional time. Fluency in spoken and written English is critical to your success in the program and legal environment, and the focus is on effective communication from the beginning to the end of your program. Students are encouraged to gain exposure to a business environment that could reasonably be expected in ordinary private legal practice. An internship of 120 consecutive hours offers an advantageous continuity of experience and is therefore highly recommended. This two-year paraprofessional legal degree program prepares you to work with lawyers as a trainee lawyer whose role is critical to supporting the outcome of the case.

If you are a graduate of a Canadian university or community college whose language of instruction is English, you may be exempt from the three general training and cross-contextual communication requirements – COM101/COM111. Details on how to apply for transfer credits can be found on the Office of the Registrar`s Application for Transfer Credits website. Students must obtain approval from their Field Practicum Coordinator prior to the start of the practicum. All field operations must be conducted under the supervision and approval of a lawyer or licensed paralegal. This course introduces students to general practice and procedures before administrative tribunals. Students learn to identify and interpret the enabling legislation of administrative tribunals. Students examine the legislation, practice, and procedures before various tribunals before which a paralegal may represent a client. It is essential that trainees have excellent communication skills when interacting with key stakeholders in the legal sector and the justice system. This course describes the professional standards of oral and written communication required in conversation and creating daily correspondence, including letters, memos, emails, etc. Students hone their ability to speak, write, read, listen and observe nonverbal cues to generate accurate and concise messages in a respectful, timely and effective manner. This flexible twelve-month degree program will equip you with the relevant administrative and technological skills to meet the demands of today`s and emerging law firm environment.

Through practical and practical training, you will gain knowledge about law firm procedures, document creation, specialized legal software, professionalism and ethics. Major areas of study include litigation, family law, corporate law, real estate law and inheritance law. This course introduces students to important elements of the Canadian legal system. Topics include an introduction to the nature of law, the sources of law, the legal system, Ontario`s court system, the legal professions and the typology of law. The course also includes an examination of property rights, consumer law, commercial law, the structure of Canadian government, the Canadian Constitution, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and methods of analysis, including the concept of jurisdiction and legal terminology. Laura Vessey Property Tax Advisor / Paralegal, Yeoman & Company Paralegal Professional Corporation (Graduate, Property Management and Paralegal) This course provides students with a working knowledge of the legal aspects of employment; In particular, the areas of employment standards, occupational health and safety, and occupational safety and insurance are examined. The course also introduces students to the administrative practices and procedures of several administrative tribunals in this area of law in Ontario.

Security Camera at Work Legal

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However, the main purpose of installing surveillance cameras in this case is very similar to that of theft. You want to collect evidence and prevent crime on your property. In most cases, this depends on your employer`s policy. In most workplaces, there is a specific person who opens and sorts mail; And in most cases, such a person can accidentally or even intentionally read your emails without legal consequences. For more than 50 years, Ackerman Security has been Atlanta`s largest and most trusted security company. Our highly trained security engineers can help you choose the best monitoring equipment for your business based on your needs and budget. Are you ready to install security cameras for your business? We have the solution for you. So what if you run a business in a state where the law doesn`t make it clear whether cameras are allowed or prohibited in the office? Chances are, you`ll face a lot of legal issues if an employee has to make a claim, unless you can prove that the cameras were used for legitimate reasons. The National Labor Relations Act (NLRB) also prohibits employers from using video cameras to monitor workers` union activities. These include union meetings or discussions on union issues. For example, federal law prohibits the recording of oral conversations without consent.

Therefore, installing a surveillance camera that records audio (without employees knowing) can be considered a form of illegal eavesdropping. For this reason, employers are advised to inform their employees of the existence of cameras on the premises if they are not obliged. However, in various states, it should be noted that courts allow employers to use hidden cameras in the workplace, but under certain circumstances. Can an employer search the employee`s private vehicle? An employer may only search an employee`s personal vehicle if it is parked on the premises and the employee knows that the employee`s vehicles may be searched upon entering the premises. As technology advances, video security is becoming more common in the modern workplace. Contractors and organizations around the world are increasingly using video surveillance to protect their assets and employees. It is illegal for an employer to use cameras to monitor union activities, which include union discussions and meetings. If an employer decides to do so, it should discuss it with unionized workers before registering the activities set out in the National Labour Relations Act.

Most people value privacy Therefore, cameras at work are often seen as an invasion of that privacy. While laws vary from state to state, the same general privacy issue remains. In California, it is illegal to install a one-way mirror where one side looks like a mirror, but the other side looks like a window, in any toilet or locker room. Similarly, in Connecticut, it is illegal for employers to use video surveillance in areas designated for employee recreation and comfort, such as restrooms or staff lounges. However, this comes with a caveat: an organization must have legitimate business reasons for using security cameras in the workplace. For most companies, this is an easy standard to meet. The following section discusses common use cases in more detail. In the workplace, video surveillance systems are a great option to check the responsibility of your employees and increase security around your building.

Whether you`re using a business, a small business, or just security camera systems for home security, installing one gives you peace of mind. Security is one of the main reasons why companies use video surveillance. If an organization has been broken into or had problems with disruptive or unwanted people entering its space, CCTV is legal in most states to ensure better physical security. For an employer to accept you legally, they must have a legitimate business goal – but such a goal isn`t always hard to find. You may also want to consider asking employees to sign a confirmation form stating that they understand that security cameras are installed. Whichever way you decide it, just make sure everyone knows and understands it. However, as long as you respect your employees` rights and don`t violate their privacy, you should be able to plan where to place your security cameras. Workplace surveillance laws only allow the use of cameras for legitimate business reasons. These laws are designed to guide employers while protecting workers` rights. Apart from the fact that they cannot carry out surveillance in private areas, employers are not allowed to monitor union activities by video. The National Labour Relations Act prohibits such a thing. It also states that employers may not use surveillance in a way to intimidate current or potential union members.

The specific areas where cameras can be placed vary from state to state. Therefore, you should contact the employment agency, a lawyer or local employers to find out how long you can stay with video surveillance and camera at work. For example, if there has been a recent theft in the area, installing a security camera is necessary to protect your employees and customers from criminals. Yes, security cameras and video surveillance in the workplace are governed by U.S. law. Sometimes theft in the workplace can be a problem, and in such a case, an employer has every right to have surveillance cameras in the work rooms. This article provides a high-level overview of when and how employers can use video cameras to monitor workers. See Are hidden cameras legal at work? and the Workplace Privacy subsection of our Small Business Law Center for more information. While there is no federal law prohibiting you from installing security cameras, most of the time you need a reason to do so.

Here are some examples of when it is legal to install a security camera in your workspace. In this article, we want to focus on how you can legally use video surveillance to protect your business, employees, and customers. As an employer, if you suspect that your employees are not engaged in work-related activities during working hours and instead engage in illegal activities that may affect the company, its customers and other employees, it would be legally permissible to have cameras at work. (Read our suggestions on workplace productivity and how to increase employee productivity) One way to reduce this friction is to let them know why you`re installing the cameras and educate them about state regulations so they can also remind you if they feel like you installed a camera in the wrong place. When are surveillance cameras and surveillance mirrors illegal in California? Many employers use video cameras to prevent internal theft and for security purposes and to document an accident or injury to employees. Most video surveillance in the workplace is allowed if employers inform employees of the surveillance. You may be able to sue your employer for installing surveillance cameras in the workplace if you can prove each of the following four things: Placing cameras in areas where little or no privacy is expected on the employee side is permitted by law.

Seadrill Legal Counsel

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In the legal profession, information is the key to success. You need to know what`s happening to customers, competitors, industries, and industries. Law360 provides the intelligence you need to stay an expert and beat the competition. He joined Seadrill in February 2011 and has over 25 years of experience in the drilling industry, most recently as Senior Vice President of Human Resources. Where does this information come from? Most of the information on this page comes from the Solicitors Regulation Authority. However, some information may have been processed directly by the professional, the company or its representative. Learn more. Law360 may contact you on a professional basis with information about our other products, services and events that we think may be of interest to you. You can update your communication preferences via the unsubscribe link in our communications. We take your privacy seriously. Please note our Privacy Policy. Enter your details below and select your areas of interest to stay ahead of the curve and receive daily newsletters from Law360 Torsten is a Danish citizen living in London, England.

Mr. Nelson is a U.S. citizen and resides in the United Kingdom. Whenever we see macroeconomic financial challenges in the industry, we see shifting priorities for all players, leading to a desire to find flexibility in existing commitments to move in different directions. Of course, this can lead to an increase in disputes arising from the supply chain and long-term supply relationships. We see an increasing focus on local content, the environment and issues arising from international labour mobility due to changes in labour laws around the world. Prior to joining Seadrill, Torsten held various positions at Maersk Drilling. Mr. Nelson has served as Chief Technology Officer since December 2020 and prior to that, as Chief Operating Officer since July 2015. Lord. Nelson joined Seadrill in 2011. He has over 23 years of experience in the drilling industry.

Prior to joining Seadrill, Mr. Nelson held various operational positions for Transocean Ltd. Mr. Nelson is a graduate of the Colorado School of Mines and holds a Bachelor of Science in Petroleum Engineering. Mr. Nelson also serves on the Board of Directors of the Well Control Institute. Initially, it was the frantic pace of everything, the need to solve very new challenges at the same time, in terms of jobs, the international relocation of people and the impact on the treaty. As the pandemic spreads, we see more fundamental effects; Constant change in working methods, places and structures. This provides opportunities to respond more creatively in the long term to the decline in demand we see across the industry through 2021 and potentially beyond. Regardless of the caliber of a strong in-house team like Seadrill, international companies like ours will always be looking for quality expertise. The international umbrella of external companies that helps us access and manage local content in emerging and challenging jurisdictions is extremely valuable. In areas such as complex dispute management, law firms are becoming true specialists in their ability to process and process the amounts of data involved, offering a more connected service to achieve resolution.

Operational delays due to COVID and force majeure are a hot topic. The cross-border movement of goods and people to offshore sites remains a major challenge. The use of AI and automation in our supply chain and in trade agreements has huge potential to help us manage risk through standardization and better alignment between project agreements across our business. This is the key to cost and time efficiency in contracting. It is much easier for us to compile statistics on our agreements to increase content consistency and monitor key metrics. As an offshore drilling company, we are well versed in the development and operation of innovative technologies. This should not stop at onshore activity. He holds an MBA from the International Institute of Management Development (IMD) in Lausanne, Switzerland.

Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer Oil and Gas Dispute Investigation: Litigation Risk Management – The Internal Perspective Simon Johnson is President and Chief Executive Officer of Seadrill Management and Chief Executive Officer of the company. Mr. Johnson was appointed to this position on March 24, 2022. PLEASE NOTE: A confirmation email will be sent to your address before you can access your trial. Lord. Creed joined Seadrill in 2013 and has held various positions within the Seadrill Group, including Director of Restructuring, Vice President of Mergers and Acquisitions, and Vice President of Commercial and Commercial Finance.

Science Laws of Reflection

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The beam reflected by the incident beam and the normals on the surface of the mirror are all in the same plane, according to the law of reflection. The angles of incidence and reflection are the same. Reflection laws determine how incident light rays are reflected on reflective surfaces such as mirrors, smooth metal surfaces, and clear water. The reflection of light rays from smooth conductive surfaces such as mirrors made of polished metal or metal-coated glass is subject to the law of reflection. Look at the incident light beam on a flat mirror shown in the figure. The incident beam, the reflected beam and the perpendicular to the surface of the mirror are all in the same plane according to the law of reflection. In addition, the reflection angle r is equal to the angle of incidence i. Both angles are measured relative to the mirror`s normal. The laws of reflection can be verified by the following experiment, as shown in the figure below: You can make eye contact with someone else through your mirror reflection because you subconsciously know that the law of reflection comes into play when you look at a mirror.

So if you look in the mirror from a certain angle, your specular reflection can make eye contact with the other person in the room! The laws of reflection and refraction can be deduced from this principle if, like Fermat, it is correctly assumed that light in a medium with a μ refractive index moves μ a slower factor than in free space. Strictly speaking, the time associated with one. The primary law of reflection states that the point of reflection is invariably compared to the point of incidence. When the episode beam hits the plane mirror at a typical angle such as 90°, the reflected beam follows. The incident beam, reflected beam, point of incidence and reflection are all on the same surface or plane. Q1: A beam of light falls at an angle of 30° with the mirror surface on a flat mirror. What will be the angle of reflection? If you observe a single beam of light approaching and bouncing off a flat mirror, you can always tell how the reflected light beam behaves, i.e. in which direction it would go and at what angle. This is essentially what the law of reflection is. Light pulse sequences are used to transmit information via a network of optical fibers using all this internal reflection. Medical instruments such as “endoscopes” use all the internal reflection of light through a fiberglass beam to image internal organs.

Do you notice how the reflection of the woman looks into the camera, but not the lady herself? (Photo credit: freestockphotos) By reflecting light, concave mirrors emit real and inverted images when the object is blurred, and a virtual, vertical, and magnified image when the object is less than the focal length of the mirror pole. We know that light is the form of energy that can be subjected to various phenomena such as refraction, reflection, diffraction and interference. In this session, let`s learn more about the laws of reflection (first set of thinking and second reflection theorem), types of reflection, examples, differences, and total inner thinking. When light rays are reflected off a surface, move from one transparent medium to another, or pass through a medium whose composition is constantly changing, they change direction. The angle of the reflected beam is equal to the angle of the incident beam when reflected on a smooth surface, according to the law of reflection. (All angles are measured in geometric optics with respect to the perpendicular to the surface, that is, a line perpendicular to the surface.) The reflected beam always falls into the plane normally defined by the incident beam and the surface. To understand the images produced by flat and curved mirrors, the law of reflection can be applied. Since most natural surfaces are rough, unlike mirrors at the scale of light wavelengths, parallel incident light rays are reflected in different directions or diffusely. The ability to see most illuminated surfaces from any position is due to diffuse reflection – the rays reach the eyes after being reflected on each part of the surface. When light flowing through a transparent medium reaches a boundary with another transparent medium (e.g. air and glass), some of the light is reflected and some is transferred to the second medium.

When the transmitted light enters the second medium, its direction of movement changes; It is broken. von Alexandria noted that the law of reflection — the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection — could be rephrased by saying that reflected light takes the shortest path — or the shortest time, provided it has a finite velocity. Around 1660, Pierre de Fermat generalized this idea in a principle of the smallest time for all rays of light (reintroduction of the. In regular and irregular reflections, the laws of reflection are followed. The phenomenon of total internal reflection is used by the fibers in the lumen of the pipeline in a curved path. Light directed at a narrow glass or plastic fiberglass is repeatedly reflected from the fiber-air interface at an angle greater than the critical angle. Optical fibers can transmit light over long distances without loss of intensity. It`s just that the light that travels along the line of sight to your eye follows the law of reflection.

(The reason for this will be explained later in lesson 2.) If you were to see along a line in a place other than the location of the image, it would be impossible for a beam of light to come from the object, be reflected by the mirror according to the law of reflection, and then move towards your eye. It is only when you look at the image that the light from the object reflects according to the mirror`s law of reflection and moves towards your eye. This truth is illustrated in the diagram below. 1. Look at the diagram on the right. Which of the angles (A, B, C or D) is the angle of incidence? ______ What is the angle of reflection? ______ When light is reflected from a rough surface irregularly, it is called irregular or diffuse reflection. Let`s take an example to better understand this. Imagine that a wall is illuminated. Parallel light rays do not reflect in a parallel pattern. The reflected light travels in different directions. Here too, the law of the reflection of light is at work. The law of reflection (in physics) states that when a beam of light hits a flat surface, the incident beam, the reflected beam and the “normal” beam on the mirror surface are all in the same plane.

It also indicates that the angle that the incident beam makes with the normal is equal to the angle that the reflected beam makes with the normal. Choose the right answer: what is the case with reflection if the second medium is a perfect dielectric? The angle of reflection is 60 degrees. (Note that the angle of incidence is not 30 degrees; it is 60 degrees because the angle of incidence between the incident beam and normal is measured.) The process by which light rays fall to the surface and are reflected is called light reflection. Light is known for its very predictable behavior. The behavior of a beam of light when reflected would satisfy a certain law known as the law of reflection if it could be seen approaching and reflecting off a flat mirror. The law of reflection is illustrated in the diagram below. Light is known to behave in a very predictable way. If a beam of light could be observed approaching and reflecting off a flat mirror, then the behavior of light as reflected would follow a predictable law known as the law of reflection. The following diagram illustrates the law of reflection. The images produced by flat mirrors and curved mirrors can be understood by the law of reflection.

According to the second law of reflection, the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. Both angles are calculated relative to the mirror`s normal. Since your eyes are on the mirror, how can you make eye contact with someone else? Well, quite simply, because it`s not you, but your mirror reflection that makes eye contact with the person you`re talking to. It is very similar to the image of the woman depicted above and is a very good example of the law of thinking at work in real life. The polished surface is the angle of reflection between the beam and the normal beam (the line perpendicular to the surface) exactly equal to the angle of incidence.